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Also, the inclusion of a backing symbol, opposite a groove-weld symbol, again without depth-of-bevel or weld-size dimensions, specifies complete joint penetration Figure 6. Although there are provisions for specifying the root opening gap , groove angle, and finish contours of welds, it is suggested that these details are best specified by a shop standard.
A discussion of groove welds should include at least mention of the scarf weld, a type of weld used on lighter gage material in small diameter piping, tube-to-tubesheet applications, and attachment of seats in smaller valves. This type of weld is intended for use with brazed joints, covered in Part B of the standard.
There are two additional groove-weld types: the flare-bevel and the flare-V. These welds are used extensively in industries in which solid rounds, piping, and square and rectangular tubing are employed for structural purposes, rather than withstanding internal pressures typical of boilers and pressure vessels.
Online Standard Symbols For Welding Brazing And Nondestructive Examination 2007
The flare-type groove welds are therefore more common in the construction of buildings that house ASME Code items than in the manufacture of the items. In a few cases there may be need to specify complete joint penetration plus a measurable reinforcement on the root side of a single-welded joint welding from one side only. The addition of the "melt-through" symbol, on the opposite side of the reference line from a groove-weld symbol, identifies this requirement.
The height of the root reinforcement may be specified by adding the appropriate dimension to the left of the melt-through symbol Figure 7. The use of consumable inserts has become more popular over the years, particularly in pipe joints, creating the need for a symbol to specify them.
An open square, placed on the reference line opposite a groove-weld symbol, indicates the requirement for a consumable insert. The AWS consumable insert class must be added to the tail of the welding symbol, unless that information is specified in some other way Figure 7. Fillet Welds Fillet welds are used extensively in industries including those producing boilers and pressure vessels. The fillet weld symbol is a right triangle placed on the reference line with the perpendicular leg always on the left.
The dimension specifying the leg size of a fillet weld is placed to the left of the fillet weld symbol, and on the same side of the reference line. Since the load-carrying capacity per pound of fillet weld is greatest for equal-leg fillet welds, they are used unless some geometry restriction requires the use of unequal-leg fillet welds. In these few cases, both leg dimensions, separated by a multiplication sign, are placed to the left of the fillet weld symbol.
The order of the leg dimensions is not significant and the orientation of the weld must therefore be shown on the drawing. In contrast to groove-type welds, fillet welds do not always extend for the full length of the joint. The length of a fillet weld, which has a length less than the length of the joint, is specified by placing the required dimension to the right of the fillet weld symbol. If the exact location of such a weld is critical, dimension lines, hatching, or detailing is necessary.
The omission of a length dimension, of course, specifies a fillet weld for the full length of the joint. Also, in contrast to groove welds, fillet welds are often specified as intermittent welds, meaning they are not continuous welds. For an intermittent weld, the segment length dimension is placed to the right of the fillet weld symbol, followed by a hyphen and pitch dimension.
The pitch is the distance between centers of segments on one side of the joint. Intermittent fillet welds can be specified on both sides of a joint by placing a fillet weld symbol both below and above the reference line. Intermittent fillet welds with the segments directly opposite across the joint are called chain intermittent fillet welds. If the segments of intermittent fillet welds are to be staggered in a symmetrical manner on both sides of a joint, the sequence of fillet size, fillet weld symbol, segment-length dimension, multiplication sign and the pitch dimension are offset, left to right, on one side of the reference line Figure 8.
Online Standard Symbols For Welding Brazing And Nondestructive Examination
There are also provisions in the American standard for specifying the contours of fillet welds and even the method by which the contours are to be produced. As with groove welds, these details are best controlled through a shop standard. Non-North American Company Standards Increased interaction between domestic and non-North American companies has led to more frequent interpretation of drawings away from their country of origin. Fortunately, the American standard has included metric dimensions along with U. The ISO standard for welding symbols, though very similar to the American standard, has some differences.
The biggest difference is the location of the arrowside and otherside information. The AWS 2. The ISO standard provides for the specification of a fillet weld size as either the leg dimension as with the American standard or the throat dimension. Since with equal-leg fillet welds, the throat dimension is approximately 70 percent of the leg dimension, it is essential that this potential difference be recognized.
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Also, the ISO standard locates the pitch dimension of intermittent welds in the same location specified by the American standard. However, the pitch dimension, by definition of the ISO standard, is the clear distance between segments rather than the distance between centers of segments. Brazing Symbols Brazing symbols are similar to those used to specify welds. An arrow, reference line, and tail are used in the same way they are used in welding symbols.
Because of the resulting mechanical properties, square- and scarf-groove symbols are more appropriate than the other groove symbols. The root opening or gap is also much more emphasized in brazing symbols compared to symbols specifying fusion welds. The approved WPS may be referenced in the tail of the brazing symbol. Current industry practices rely more on detail drawings to specify brazing applications than the use of brazing symbols.
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Nondestructive Examination Symbols The arrow, reference line, and tail used to specify a nondestructive examination NDE , appear exactly the same as those used to specify welds and have the same significance. The various examination methods have been assigned designation letters which are placed below, above or both below and above the reference line to specify, respectively, examination on the "arrow side," "other side" or both sides of the part.
Combinations of examinations may be specified by adding additional designation letters with an additional sign separating the methods.
In those cases where there is no arrow or other side significance, or there is no preference from which side the examination is made, the designation letters are centered on the reference line. There is a provision that allows the number of examinations to be specified, and the field-examination and examine-all-around symbols may also be used. Summary Space does not permit complete coverage of the entire American standard.
FIGURE 2 The Reference Line Another essential part of all welding symbols is the reference line, which is a straight line, drawn horizontally on a drawing, and connected to the arrow.